DescTools-package

Tools for Descriptive Statistics and Exploratory Data Analysis

## Data Manipulation

### Operators

%()% %(]% %[)% %[]% %][% %](% %)[% %)(% %:% %::%

Operators To Check, If a Value Lies Within Or Outside a Given Range

%^%

Matrix Power

%c%

Concatenates Two Strings Without Any Separator

%like% %like any%

Like Operator

%nin%

Find Matching (or Non-Matching) Elements

%overlaps% Overlap() Interval()

Determines If And How Extensively Two Date Ranges Overlap

### Transformations & Recoding

BoxCox() BoxCoxInv()

Box Cox Transformation

BoxCoxLambda()

Automatic Selection of Box Cox Transformation Parameter

FisherZ() FisherZInv() CorCI()

Fisher-Transformation for Correlation to z-Score

Frac() MaxDigits() Ndec() Prec()

Fractional Part and Maximal Digits of a Numeric Value

ImputeKnn()

Fill in NA values with the values of the nearest neighbours

LinScale()

Linear Scaling

Logit() LogitInv()

Generalized Logit and Inverse Logit Function

LogSt() LogStInv()

Started Logarithmic Transformation and Its Inverse

PercentRank()

Percent Ranks

Rank()

Fast Sample Ranks

RoundTo()

Round to Multiple

Winsorize()

Winsorize (Replace Extreme Values by Less Extreme Ones)

ZeroIfNA() NAIfZero() NAIf() BlankIfNA() NAIfBlank() Impute()

Replace NAs by 0

CutQ()

Create a Factor Variable Using the Quantiles of a Continuous Variable

Recode()

Recode a Factor

Dummy()

Generate Dummy Codes for a Factor

GeomTrans()

Geometric Transformations

### Change Order

LOCF()

Last Observation Carried Forward

reorder(<factor>)

Reorder the Levels of a Factor

Rev()

Reverse Elements of a Vector, a Matrix, a Table, an Array or a Data.frame

Sort()

Sort a Vector, a Matrix, a Table or a Data.frame

SortMixed() OrderMixed()

Sort Strings with Embedded Numbers Based on Their Numeric Order

VecRot() VecShift()

Vector Rotation (Shift Elements)

### Change Size

Abind()

Combine Multidimensional Arrays

Append()

Append Elements to Objects

Trim()

Trim a Vector

### Reshape Data

SplitToCol()

Split Data Frame String Column Into Multiple Columns

CollapseTable()

Collapse Levels of a Table

Untable()

Recover Original Data From Contingency Table

ToLong() ToWide()

Reshape a Vector From Long to Wide Shape Or Vice Versa

TextToTable()

Converts String To a Table

MultMerge()

Merge Multiple Data Frames

as.matrix(<xtabs>)

Convert xtabs To matrix

Rename()

Change Names of a Named Object

SetNames()

Set the Names in an Object

Label() Label<-() Unit() Unit<-()

Label, Unit Attribute of an Object

### String Functions

ZeroIfNA() NAIfZero() NAIf() BlankIfNA() NAIfBlank() Impute()

Replace NAs by 0

ColumnWrap()

Column Wrap

FixToTable()

Convert a Text to a Table

StrAbbr()

String Abbreviation

StrAlign()

String Alignment

StrCap()

Capitalize the First Letter of a String

StrChop()

Split a String into a Number of Sections of Defined Length

StrCountW()

Count Words in a String

StrDist()

Compute Distances Between Strings

StrExtract() StrExtractBetween()

Extract Part of a String

StrIsNumeric()

Does a String Contain Only Numeric Data

StrLeft() StrRight()

Returns the Left Or the Right Part Of a String

StrPad()

StrPos()

Find Position of First Occurrence Of a String

StrRev()

Reverse a String

StrSpell()

Spell a String Using the NATO Phonetic or the Morse Alphabet

StrSplit()

Split the Elements of a Character Vector

StrTrim()

Remove Leading/Trailing Whitespace From A String

StrTrunc()

Truncate Strings and Add Ellipses If a String is Truncated.

StrVal()

Extract All Numeric Values From a String

### Date Functions

day.name day.abb

Build-in Constants Extension

AddMonths()

Add a Month to a Date

AddMonthsYM()

Add a Month to a Date in YearMonth Format

IsDate()

Check If an Object Is of Type Date

Year() Quarter() Month() Week() Day() Weekday() YearDay() YearMonth() Day<-() IsWeekend() IsLeapYear() Hour() Minute() Second() Timezone() Now() Today() DiffDays360() LastDayOfMonth() YearDays() MonthDays()

Basic Date Functions

CountWorkDays()

Count Work Days Between Two Dates

HmsToSec() SecToHms()

Convert h:m:s To/From Seconds

%overlaps% Overlap() Interval()

Determines If And How Extensively Two Date Ranges Overlap

Zodiac()

Calculate the Zodiac of a Date

### Conversion Functions

AscToChar() CharToAsc()

Convert ASCII Codes to Characters and Vice Versa

BinToDec() DecToBin() OctToDec() DecToOct() HexToDec() DecToHex()

Converts Numbers From Binmode, Octmode or Hexmode to Decimal and Vice Versa

DegToRad() RadToDeg()

Convert Degrees to Radians and Vice Versa

CartToPol() PolToCart() CartToSph() SphToCart()

Transform Cartesian to Polar/Spherical Coordinates and Vice Versa

RomanToInt()

Convert Roman Numerals to Integers

RgbToCol() RgbToLong() LongToRgb()

Find the Nearest Named R-Color to a Given RGB-Color

RgbToCmy() CmykToRgb() CmyToCmyk() CmykToCmy()

Conversion Between RGB and CMYK

ColToGrey() ColToGray()

Convert Colors to Grey/Grayscale

ColToHex()

Convert a Color or a RGB-color Into Hex String

HexToCol()

Identify Closest Match to a Color Given by a Hexadecimal String

HexToRgb()

Convert a Hexstring Color to a Matrix With Three Red/Green/Blue Rows

ColToOpaque()

Equivalent Opaque Color for Transparent Color

ColToHsv()

R Color to HSV Conversion

ColToRgb()

Color to RGB Conversion

CmToPts() PtsToCm() ConvUnit() d.units d.prefix

Unit Conversion and Metrix Prefixes

## Plotting

### Plots (High Level)

Lc() plot(<Lc>) plot(<Lclist>) lines(<Lc>) predict(<Lc>)

Lorenz Curve

PlotACF() PlotGACF()

Combined Plot of a Time Series and Its ACF and PACF

PlotArea(<default>) PlotArea(<formula>)

Create an Area Plot

PlotBag() PlotBagPairs() compute.bagplot() plot(<bagplot>)

Bivariate Boxplot

BinTree() PlotBinTree()

Binary Tree

PlotBubble()

Draw a Bubble Plot

PlotCandlestick()

Plot Candlestick Chart

PlotCashFlow()

Cash Flow Plot

PlotCirc()

Plot Circular Plot

PlotConDens()

Plot Conditional Densities

PlotCorr()

Plot a Correlation Matrix

PlotDot() PlotDotCI()

Cleveland's Dot Plots

PlotECDF()

Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function

PlotFaces()

Chernoff Faces

PlotFdist()

Frequency Distribution Plot

PlotFun()

Plot a Function

PlotLinesA()

Plot Lines

PlotLog()

Logarithmic Plot

PlotMarDens()

Scatterplot With Marginal Densities

PlotMiss()

Plot Missing Data

PlotMonth()

Cycle Plot for Seasonal Effects of an Univariate Time Series

PlotMosaic()

Mosaic Plots

PlotMultiDens()

Plot Multiple Density Curves

PlotPairs()

Extended Scatterplot Matrices

PlotPolar()

Plot Values on a Circular Grid

PlotPyramid()

Draw a Back To Back Pyramid Plot

PlotQQ()

QQ-Plot for Any Distribution

PlotTernary()

Ternary or Triangular Plots

PlotTreemap()

Create a Treemap

PlotVenn()

Plot a Venn Diagram

PlotViolin()

PlotWeb()

Plot a Web of Connected Points

PolarGrid()

Plot a Grid in Polar Coordinates

### Plots (Low Level)

Arrow()

Insert an Arrow Into a Plot

Asp()

Get Aspect Ratio of the Current Plot

AxisBreak()

Place a Break Mark on an Axis

axTicks.POSIXct() axTicks.Date()

Compute Axis Tickmark Locations (For POSIXct Axis)

BarText()

Place Value Labels on a Barplot

BoxedText()

Add Text in a Box to a Plot

BubbleLegend()

Add a Legend to a Bubble Plot

Canvas()

Canvas for Geometric Plotting

ConnLines()

Add Connection Lines to a Barplot

DrawArc()

Draw Elliptic Arc(s)

DrawBand()

Draw Confidence Band

DrawBezier()

Draw a Bezier Curve

DrawCircle()

Draw a Circle

DrawEllipse()

Draw an Ellipse

DrawRegPolygon()

Draw Regular Polygon(s)

ErrBars()

Add Error Bars to an Existing Plot

identify(<formula>)

Identify Points In a Plot Using a Formula

IdentifyA()

Identify Points in Plot Lying Within a Rectangle or Polygon

lines(<lm>)

lines(<loess>) lines(<smooth.spline>) lines(<SmoothSpline>)

Add a Loess or a Spline Smoother

LineToUser()

Convert Line Coordinates To User Coordinates

Mar() Mgp()

Set Plot Margins and Distances

PtInPoly()

Point in Polygon

Rotate()

Rotate a Geometric Structure

Shade()

SmoothSpline()

Formula Interface For smooth.spline

SpreadOut()

Spread Out a Vector of Numbers To a Minimum Interval

Stamp()

Date/Time/Directory Stamp the Current Plot

TitleRect()

Plot Boxed Annotation

### Colors

ColorLegend()

Add a ColorLegend to a Plot

FindColor()

Get Color on a Defined Color Range

MixColor()

Compute the Convex Combination of Two Colors

Pal() plot(<palette>) hred horange hyellow hecru hblue hgreen

Some Custom Palettes

SetAlpha()

Add an Alpha Channel To a Color

TextContrastColor()

Choose Textcolor Depending on Background Color

## Exploratory Analysis & Reporting

Abstract()

Display Compact Abstract of a Data Frame

CatTable()

Function to write a table

CountCompCases() print(<CountCompCases>)

Count Complete Cases

CompleteColumns()

Find Complete Columns

Desc() print(<Desc>) plot(<Desc>)

Describe Data

ExpFreq()

Expected Frequencies

Format() Fmt() as.fmt() as.CDateFmt()

Format Numbers and Dates

Freq2D()

Bivariate (Two-Dimensional) Frequency Distribution

Freq() print(<Freq>)

Frequency Table for a Single Variable

Small() Large() HighLow()

Kth Smallest/Largest Values

PercTable(<default>) PercTable(<table>) PercTable(<formula>) print(<PercTable>) Margins()

Percentage Table

Str()

Compactly Display the Structure of any R Object

TMod() ModSummary() plot(<TMod>) print(<TMod>)

Comparison Table For Linear Models

TOne()

Create Table One Describing Baseline Characteristics

TwoGroups()

Describe a Variable by a Factor with Two Levels

## Utilities for Statistical Analysis

Contrasts()

Pairwise Contrasts

BootCI()

Simple Bootstrap Confidence Intervals

DoBy()

Evaluates a Function Groupwise

PairApply()

Pairwise Calculations

## Statistics and Coefficients

### Statistics: Central Tendency / Location

Mode()

Mode, Most Frequent Value(s)

Mean()

(Weighted) Arithmetic Mean

MeanSE()

Standard Error of Mean

MeanCI()

Confidence Interval for the Mean

MeanCIn()

Sample Size for a Given Width of a Confidence Interval for a Mean

MeanDiffCI()

Confidence Interval For Difference of Means

Gmean() Gsd()

Geometric Mean and Standard Deviation

Hmean()

Harmonic Mean and Its Confidence Interval

MoveAvg()

Moving Average

Median()

(Weighted) Median Value

MedianCI()

Confidence Interval for the Median

Quantile()

Weighted Quantiles

QuantileCI()

Confidence Interval for Any Quantile

TukeyBiweight()

Calculate Tukey's Biweight Robust Mean

HuberM()

Safe (generalized) Huber M-Estimator of Location

HodgesLehmann()

Hodges-Lehmann Estimator of Location

### Statistics: Dispersion / Variation

Range()

(Robust) Range

SD()

(Weighted) Standard Deviation

Var()

Variance

VarCI()

Confidence Intervals for the Variance

CoefVar()

Coefficient of Variation

MAD()

Median Absolute Deviation

MADCI()

Confidence Intervals for Median Absolute Deviations

MeanAD()

Mean Absolute Deviation From a Center Point

IQRw()

The (weighted) Interquartile Range

Gmean() Gsd()

Geometric Mean and Standard Deviation

### Statistics: Shape of Distribution

Skew() Kurt()

Skewness and Kurtosis

Outlier()

Outlier

LOF()

Local Outlier Factor

### Statistics: Count Variables

PoissonCI()

Poisson Confidence Interval

### Statistics: Proportions

BinomCI()

Confidence Intervals for Binomial Proportions

BinomCIn()

Sample Size for a Given Width of a Binomial Confidence Interval

MultinomCI()

Confidence Intervals for Multinomial Proportions

BinomRatioCI()

Confidence Intervals for the Ratio of Binomial Proportions

BinomDiffCI()

Confidence Interval for a Difference of Binomials

OddsRatio()

Odds Ratio Estimation and Confidence Intervals

RelRisk()

Relative Risk

ORToRelRisk()

Transform Odds Ratio to Relative Risk

### Statistics: Correlation

Cov() Cor()

Covariance and Correlation (Matrices)

FisherZ() FisherZInv() CorCI()

Fisher-Transformation for Correlation to z-Score

CorPart()

Find the Correlations for a Set x of Variables With Set y Removed

CorPolychor() print(<CorPolychor>)

Polychoric Correlation

SpearmanRho()

Spearman Rank Correlation

KendallTauA()

Kendall's $$\tau_{a}$$

KendallTauB()

Kendall's $$\tau_{b}$$

StuartTauC()

Stuart $$\tau_{c}$$

HoeffD() print(<HoeffD>)

Matrix of Hoeffding's D Statistics

KendallW()

Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W

CCC()

Concordance Correlation Coefficient

ICC() print(<ICC>)

Intraclass Correlations (ICC1, ICC2, ICC3 From Shrout and Fleiss)

FindCorr()

Determine Highly Correlated Variables

ConDisPairs()

Concordant and Discordant Pairs

### Statistics: Association

Assocs() print(<Assocs>)

Association Measures

SomersDelta()

Somers' Delta

Lambda()

Goodman Kruskal Lambda

GoodmanKruskalTau()

Goodman Kruskal's Tau

Phi() ContCoef() CramerV() YuleQ() YuleY() TschuprowT()

Cramer's V, Pearson's Contingency Coefficient and Phi Coefficient
Yule's Q and Y, Tschuprow's T

GoodmanKruskalGamma()

Goodman Kruskal's Gamma

UncertCoef()

Uncertainty Coefficient

Entropy() MutInf()

Shannon Entropy and Mutual Information

DivCoef()

Rao's Diversity Coefficient

DivCoefMax()

Maximal value of Rao's diversity coefficient also called quadratic entropy

TheilU()

Theil's U Index of Inequality

Agree()

Raw Simple And Extended Percentage Agreement

CohenKappa()

Cohen's Kappa and Weighted Kappa

KappaM()

Kappa for m Raters

CronbachAlpha()

Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha

KrippAlpha()

Krippendorff's Alpha Reliability Coefficient

### Statistics: Concentration

Gini()

Gini Coefficient

Atkinson()

Atkinson Index - A Measure of Inequality.

Herfindahl() Rosenbluth()

Concentration Measures

GiniSimpson() HunterGaston()

Gini-Simpson Coefficient and Hunter-Gaston Index

### Statistics: Effect Size and Model Assessment

CohenD()

Cohen's Effect Size

EtaSq()

Effect Size Calculations for ANOVAs

BrierScore()

Brier Score for Assessing Prediction Accuracy

Cstat()

C Statistic (Area Under the ROC Curve)

MAE() MAPE() SMAPE() MSE() RMSE() NMAE() NMSE()

Measures of Accuracy

Conf() plot(<Conf>) print(<Conf>) Sens() Spec()

Confusion Matrix And Associated Statistics

PseudoR2()

Pseudo R2 Statistics

VIF()

Variance Inflation Factors

StdCoef() PartialSD()

Standardized Model Coefficients

## Statistical Tests

SignTest()

Sign Test

ZTest()

Z Test for Known Population Standard Deviation

TTestA()

Student's t-Test Based on Sample Statistics

Phrase()

Phrasing Results of t-Test

JonckheereTerpstraTest()

Exact Version of Jonckheere-Terpstra Test

PageTest()

Exact Page Test for Ordered Alternatives

CochranQTest()

Cochran's Q test

VarTest()

ChiSquare Test for One Variance and F Test to Compare Two Variances

SiegelTukeyTest() SiegelTukeyRank()

Siegel-Tukey Test For Equality In Variability

LeveneTest()

Levene's Test for Homogeneity of Variance

MosesTest()

Moses Test of Extreme Reactions

RunsTest()

Runs Test for Randomness

DurbinWatsonTest()

Durbin-Watson Test

BartelsRankTest()

Bartels Rank Test of Randomness

JarqueBeraTest()

(Robust) Jarque Bera Test

AndersonDarlingTest()

Anderson-Darling Test of Goodness-of-Fit

CramerVonMisesTest()

Cramer-von Mises Test for Normality

LillieTest()

Lilliefors (Kolmogorov-Smirnov) Test for Normality

PearsonTest()

Pearson Chi-Square Test for Normality

ShapiroFranciaTest()

Shapiro-Francia Test for Normality

MHChisqTest()

Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square Test

StuartMaxwellTest()

Stuart-Maxwell Marginal Homogeneity Test

LehmacherTest() print(<mtest>)

Lehmacher's Test for Marginal Homogenity

CochranArmitageTest()

Cochran-Armitage Test for Trend

BreslowDayTest()

Breslow-Day Test for Homogeneity of the Odds Ratios

WoolfTest()

Woolf Test For Homogeneity in 2x2xk Tables

PostHocTest() print(<PostHocTest>) plot(<PostHocTest>)

Post-Hoc Tests

ScheffeTest()

Scheffe Test for Pairwise and Otherwise Comparisons

DunnTest() print(<DunnTest>)

Dunn's Test of Multiple Comparisons

DunnettTest()

Dunnett's Test for Comparing Several Treatments With a Control

ConoverTest()

Conover's Test of Multiple Comparisons

NemenyiTest()

Nemenyi Test

VanWaerdenTest()

van der Waerden Test

HotellingsT2Test()

Hotelling's T2 Test

YuenTTest()

Yuen t-Test For Trimmed Means

BarnardTest()

Barnard's Unconditional Test

BhapkarTest()

Bhapkar Marginal Homogeneity Test

BreuschGodfreyTest()

Breusch-Godfrey Test

GTest()

G-Test for Count Data

power.chisq.test()

Power Calculations for ChiSquared Tests

HosmerLemeshowTest()

Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness of Fit Tests

VonNeumannTest()

Von Neumann's Successive Difference Test

Eps()

Greenhouse-Geisser And Huynh-Feldt Epsilons

## Distributions

dBenf() pBenf() qBenf() rBenf()

Benford's Distribution

dExtrVal() pExtrVal() qExtrVal() rExtrVal()

Distributions of Maxima and Minima

dFrechet() pFrechet() qFrechet() rFrechet()

The Frechet Distribution

dGenExtrVal() pGenExtrVal() qGenExtrVal() rGenExtrVal()

The Generalized Extreme Value Distribution

dGenPareto() pGenPareto() qGenPareto() rGenPareto()

The Generalized Pareto Distribution

dGompertz() pGompertz() qGompertz() rGompertz()

The Gompertz distribution

dGumbel() pGumbel() qGumbel() rGumbel()

The Gumbel Distribution

dRevWeibull() pRevWeibull() qRevWeibull() rRevWeibull() dNegWeibull() pNegWeibull() qNegWeibull() rNegWeibull()

The Reverse Weibull Distribution

dOrder() pOrder() rOrder()

Distributions of Order Statistics

dRevGumbel() pRevGumbel() qRevGumbel() rRevGumbel() qRevGumbelExp()

"Reverse" Gumbel Distribution Functions

## Finance Functions

OPR() NPV() IRR() NPVFixBond() YTM()

Short Selection of Financial Mathematical Functions

SLN() DB() SYD()

Several Methods of Depreciation of an Asset

PMT() IPMT() PPMT() RBAL()

Periodic Payment of an Annuity.

## Word, Excel, PowerPoint, SAS: In/Out

GetNewPP() GetCurrPP() PpAddSlide() PpPlot() PpText()

Add Slides, Insert Texts and Plots to PowerPoint

GetCurrWrd() GetCurrXL()

Get a Handle to a Running Word/Excel Instance

GetNewWrd() WrdKill()

Create a New Word Instance

GetNewXL()

Create a New Excel Instance

IsValidHwnd()

Check Windows Pointer

ParseSASDatalines()

Parse a SAS Dataline Command

ToWrd()

Send Objects to Word

ToWrdB()

Send Objects to Word and Bookmark Them

ToWrdPlot()

Send a Plot to Word and Bookmark it

XLView() ToXL() XLKill()

Use MS-Excel as Viewer for a Data.Frame

wdConst xlConst

Word VBA Constants

WrdBookmark() WrdInsertBookmark() WrdDeleteBookmark() WrdGoto() WrdUpdateBookmark()

Some Functions to Handle MS-Word Bookmarks

WrdCaption()

Insert Caption to Word

WrdCellRange()

Return the Cell Range Of a Word Table

WrdFont() WrdFont<-()

Get or Set the Font in Word

WrdFormatCells()

Format Cells Of a Word Table

WrdMergeCells()

Merges Cells Of a Defined Word Table Range

WrdPageBreak()

Insert a Page Break

WrdParagraphFormat() WrdParagraphFormat<-()

Get or Set the Paragraph Format in Word

WrdPlot()

Insert Active Plot to Word

WrdOpenFile() WrdSaveAs()

Open and Save Word Documents

WrdStyle() WrdStyle<-()

Get or Set the Style in Word

WrdTable()

Insert a Table in a Word Document

WrdTableBorders()

Draw Borders to a Word Table

XLDateToPOSIXct()

Convert Excel Dates to POSIXct

XLGetRange() XLGetWorkbook() XLCurrReg() XLNamedReg()

Import Data Directly From Excel

XLSaveAs()

Save Excel File

## Sampling and Data Generation

GenRandGroups()

Generate Random Groups

Sample()

Random Samples and Permutations

Strata()

Stratified Sampling

Permn() CombN() CombSet()

Number and Samples for Permutations or Combinations of a Set

SampleTwins()

Sample Twins

RndPairs() RndWord()

Create Pairs of Correlated Random Numbers

Some()

Return Some Randomly Chosen Elements of an Object

## Tools and Utilities

AllIdentical()

Test Multiple Objects for Exact Equality

DescToolsOptions()

DescTools Options

DoCall()

Fast Alternative To The Internal do.call

FctArgs()

Retrieve a Function's Arguments

GetCalls()

Return All Used Functions Within a Function

InDots()

Is a Specific Argument in the Dots-Arguments?

Keywords()

List Keywords For R Manual Pages

LsObj() LsFct()

List Objects, Functions Or Data in a Package

N()

Some Aliases Set for Convenience

ParseFormula()

Parse a Formula and Create a Model Frame

PasswordDlg()

PDFManual()

Get PDF Manual of a Package From CRAN

Recycle()

Recyle a List of Elements

RSessionAlive() RTempdirAlive()

How Long Has the RSession Been Running?

SendOutlookMail()

Send a Mail Using Outlook as Mail Client

split(<formula>)

Formula Interface for Split

SplitAt()

Split a Vector Into Several Pieces at Given Positions

SetAttr() StripAttr()

Remove Attributes from an Object

SplitPath()

Split Path In Drive, Path, Filename

SysInfo() FindRProfile()

System Information

Unwhich()

Inverse Which

Vigenere()

Vigenere Cypher

AllDuplicated()

Index Vector of All Values Involved in Ties

Coalesce()

Return the First Element Not Being NA

Quot()

Lagged Quotients

SaveAs()

Saves an R Object Under a Different Name

WithOptions()

Execute Function with Temporary Options

RevCode()

Reverse Codes

IsWhole() IsZero() IsNumeric()

Check a Vector For Being Numeric, Zero Or a Whole Number

IsDichotomous() Flags()

Test If a Variable Contains Only Two Unique Values

IsOdd()

Checks If An Integer Is Even Or Odd

IsPrime()

IsPrime Property

IsEuclid()

Is a Distance Matrix Euclidean?

## Calculations

AUC()

Area Under the Curve

BinTree() PlotBinTree()

Binary Tree

Clockwise()

Calculates Begin and End Angle From a List of Given Angles in Clockwise Mode

Closest()

Find the Closest Value

CombPairs()

Get All Pairs Out of One or Two Sets of Elements

Cross()

Vector Cross Product

CrossN()

n-dimensional Vector Cross Product

DigitSum()

Calculate Digit Sum

Divisors()

Calculate Divisors

Dot()

Scalar Product

Factorize()

Prime Factorization of Integers

Fibonacci()

Fibonacci Numbers

GCD() LCM()

Greatest Common Divisor and Least Common Multiple

GeomSn()

Geometric Series

Midx()

Find the Midpoints of a Numeric Vector

Primes()

Find All Primes Less Than n

RobScale()

Robust Scaling With Median and Mad

UnirootAll()

Finds many (all) roots of one equation within an interval

## Data

### Datasets

CourseData()

Get HWZ Datasets

d.pizza

Data pizza

d.whisky

Classification of Scotch Single Malts

d.diamonds

Data diamonds

### Reference Data

CmToPts() PtsToCm() ConvUnit() d.units d.prefix

Unit Conversion and Metrix Prefixes

cards tarot roulette

Datasets for Probabilistic Simulation

d.countries

ISO 3166-1 Country Codes

d.periodic

Periodic Table of Elements